Problem: cracked or peaked surface or large tunnels
Cause: oven too hot or batter over mixed
Problem: coarse grain and sunken center
Cause: oven too cold, batter under mixed, or too much baking powder
Problem: poor volume, compact texture
Cause: old or too little baking powder or cold eggs and/or butter
Problem: dry cake, tough crust
Cause: over baking or pan too big
Problem: burnt bottom and undercooked batter
Cause: inadequate air circulaion in oven